Should God Come First or What is Your Idol?
Dr. Joe Temple

Introduction

Will you open your Bibles, please, to the book of Exodus, chapter 20. We have been studying the book of Exodus together, and we have been thinking about the Ten Commandments. We have thought all around the Ten Commandments, because we felt that there were a number of introductory things that needed to be said in order that we might be able to understand them.

Shall we bow our heads together for prayer, please:

Our Father, we do thank Thee for the Lord Jesus Christ, who has made possible our assembling together. We thank Thee, our Father, for His presence with us, according to promise. We thank Thee for that anointing of the Holy Spirit that enables us to understand the Word of God. We pray that Thou wilt open the Word to us, that we may be able to see from this particular portion the truth that Thou hast for us. For we pray in Jesus' name and for His sake. Amen.

Christ Amplified the Commandments

Now we want to begin a consideration of the Ten Commandments individually, to learn exactly what these Commandments involve. That the Ten Commandments do have more beneath the surface than is apparent to the average man is indicated by what the Lord Jesus Christ Himself said when He was on the earth. Folk got the idea that He was destroying the law and the prophets, as they said. He said, “I am not come to destroy the law and the prophets, but to fulfill the law and the prophets” (Matthew 5:17)

There are two interpretations of His statement about fulfilling the law. One, of course, is that it refers to His death upon the Cross, where He took upon Himself the full penalty of the law, so that we are completely freed from it. The other is that He was amplifying the law, just as He did when He said, for example, “Thou hast read where Moses said..”, and then quoted one of the Commandments. “But, I say unto you..”, He said. He did not change it; He amplified it.

With that thought in mind, we would like for you to notice these Ten Commandments now–to dig down into them and to see exactly what is here for us in this Dispensation in which we live. I am going to suggest that we read the Ten Commandments in their entirety before we think about them individually. Will you notice, please, chapter 20 of the book of Exodus:

Exodus 20

1And God spake all these words, saying,
2I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
3Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
4Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.
5Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
6And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
7Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
8Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:
10But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
11For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
12Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
13Thou shalt not kill.
14Thou shalt not commit adultery.
15Thou shalt not steal.
16Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
17Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

We will stop our reading right there, because these verses present the Ten Commandments themselves. The remaining portion of the chapter deals with the reaction of the people to what Moses had to say about these Commandments.

Numbering the Commandments

It might be wise for us to recognize that not everybody numbers these Ten Commandments in the same fashion. In your reading sometime you may run across such a suggestion, and you may be a little bit confused by it. Really, it doesn't make a great deal of difference because they are all presented here; but I might remind you that the Jews, and a great many of the Protestant churches following the Jewish suggestion, let the preface of this chapter be one commandment, thus making ten. The preface reads:

Exodus 20

2I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

The Catholics combine the first and second one, and they take the tenth Commandment, found in verse 17, and divide it into two. You can see from this that all the subject matter is included, regardless of how any group may divide the Commandments. If in your reading you run across such a varied numbering, you will see that it is simply a manmade division, and has nothing to do with the subject matter of the Ten Commandments themselves.

I would like for you to notice with me the preface, the introduction, to the Commandments, because to my mind it is exceedingly important:

Exodus 20

2I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

I Am Jehovah Thy God

The first statement in this preface, “I am the LORD thy God,” is important in the light of the first Commandment, in verse 3: “Thou shalt have no other gods before me.” God identifies Himself when He gives the Commandment, “Thou shalt have no other gods before me,” by saying, “I am the LORD thy God.” The reason we make mention of this is to remind you that it is not sufficient for people to have a god. It is necessary for them to know the true God, who has designated Himself here as, “I am the LORD thy God.”

Look at the word “LORD” with me for a moment. Notice that every letter in that word is capitalized, and when you find “LORD” with every letter capitalized, you know it is the translation of the Hebrew word Jehovah . When you find the Hebrew word “Lord” with just the first letter capitalized, it is the translation of the Hebrew word Adonai , which means “master.” So, we might read this verse: “I am Jehovah, thy God.”

Eternal Existence of God

Look at the word “Jehovah,” which I have suggested to you as the meaning of the word “LORD.” The first part of that word means, “He was,” the second means “He is,” and third means, “He will be.” He was, He is, He will be. Those three words are put together to form our one word “Jehovah,” which suggests the eternal existence of God. Turn with me to the first chapter of the book of Revelation and notice the significance of this name “Jehovah” in reference to the Revelation itself:

Revelation 1

4John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and peace, from him [notice now] which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

We are primarily interested in the statement, “from him which is, and which was, and which is to come.” The individual who gave the revelation to John on the Isle of Patmos is the same individual who gave the law to Moses. “Jehovah” means “He who was, who is, and who is to come.”

The Mighty One

Go back to Exodus, chapter 20, and let us notice the second part of the identity of the one who gives the law. He said, “I am the LORD thy God.” Notice the word “God.” You see it often in your Bibles, and you use this term of address to God many times. It is from the Hebrew word Elohim , which literally means “the mighty One.” So we read: “I am the One who is and who is to come (or who shall be), the mighty One. I am the One who says to you, 'Thou shalt have no other gods before me.'” His identity is important to the understanding of the Commandments, because some people may say to you, “Well, everybody has his god. Just so long as a person is sincere and has some kind of god, it is sufficient.” It isn't. It is necessary for God to be identified as Jehovah Elohim.

Deliverance Before Responsibility

You will notice in this preface a second thing that is of real importance. God said, “I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.” God mentions deliverance before He mentions responsibility. Will you remember that? God would never speak to an unsaved man about responsibility. All God speaks to an unsaved man about is the Gospel: Believe the Gospel and be saved.

You understand that the Commandments have a very definite relationship to the unsaved; we have already considered that. But the Holy Spirit, in authoring the book of Exodus, follows the same plan that He does with every one of the books in the Bible. He speaks first of blessing, of opportunity, and then of responsibility.

Keep that thought in mind in the examination of the New Testament Epistles. You will find that the same author wrote all the books, because of the similarity. Take, for example, the book of Ephesians. The first three chapters of the book of Ephesians tell you what your privileges are in Christ. They tell you everything that Christ has done for you, all of the blessings that are yours, because you belong to Him. Then in the last three chapters the responsibility is presented to you: You should walk in the light of the privilege that is yours.

Take, for example, the book of Romans. The first eleven chapters speak to you of all the mercies of God; from the 12th chapter on, your responsibility is emphasized. The Apostle says, “I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice” (Romans 12:1). We are prone to hold up a standard and tell everybody to try to reach that standard. God puts us in a place of blessing, and then says, “Live in accordance with your standing.” If you get that vision of God's dealing with the human race, it will make your responsibility a privilege instead of a task.

Undivided Allegiance to God

I would like for you to notice with me the very first Commandment:

Exodus 20

3Thou shalt have no other gods before me.

I would like to suggest to you that, according to the original text, the word “before” should be “beside.” You say, “Does it make any difference?” Yes, a great deal of difference because the problem of the Jews is our problem, and the thing that God would warn us against is trying to divide our allegiance to Him. There are any number of people who would say, “I have no god but God. I don't worship idols. I believe in only one God.” That may be true; but are you trying to divide your allegiance to Him, and to give allegiance to someone else or something else? That is what He means when He says, “Thou shalt have no other god beside Me.” God will not share His glory with anybody or anything else. That we are headed in the right direction in our understanding of this verse becomes evident if we examine the Word of God.

Will you turn, please, to the book of Isaiah, chapter 42, verse 5:

Isaiah 42

5Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein:
6I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles;
7To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house.

Notice this verse particularly

Notice that 8th verse: “I am the LORD.” Notice in the word “LORD” every letter capitalized. “I am Jehovah. I will not give My glory, I will not give My praise, to images. I will not share My glory nor My praise with anyone else.” That is why God said, “Thou shalt have no other gods beside Me.”

Baal, Molock, Mammon

Keep in mind that He was giving these Commandments to the Israelites. If you are familiar with the history of the Israelites, you will remember that they had three primary gods whom they were constantly bringing into their sphere of allegiance, and with whom they were asking God to share their allegiance. I think it is significant that these three are emphasized throughout the Old Testament.

It might be wise for us to notice them as we let these Commandments speak to our own hearts. You will recognize the names as I mention them. One of them was Baal, one was Moloch, and the other was Mammon. Baal, Moloch, and Mammon were the three gods who were constantly drawing away the allegiance that the Israelites had given to Jehovah.

We do not have time now to examine the Scriptures that describe Baal. It would be interesting for you, when you have time, to pursue that. Baal was the god of impurity. Many impure practices were related to the worship of Baal. God is saying to the nation of Israel, “I am not going to share My glory with that which is impure. I demand your allegiance. If you have given your allegiance to that which is impure, I am not going to stand for it, because your allegiance belongs wholly to Me.”

Moloch was the god of cruelty. The thing about which God constantly dealt with the Israelites in connection with the worship of Moloch was their causing their children to pass through the fire, which means that they offered up their children. Yes,, the Israelites. Israelites who worshiped the God, Jehovah, actually offered their children on an altar, as a burnt offering to Moloch. It is difficult for us to imagine, but it is true. God said, “I am not going to share your allegiance with that which demands cruelty for its discharge.”

Mammon is the god of possession. The Lord Jesus Christ, in talking about this very same thing, said, “You cannot serve God and Mammom (Matthew 6:24). You cannot divide your allegiance between Elohim (that is the true translated ”God“) and Mammon. You just can't do it.” If possessions are your god, then you are out of fellowship, because God cannot share your allegiance with Moloch, with Baal, or with Mammon.

Making Business a God

Will you turn, please, to the book of Habakkuk, chapter 1, as I suggest another god, for mentioned in the Bible are five that continually create a problem. This god is presented in numerous places in the Word of God, but I have always been interested in this particular description of him because it seems to me so very apt, and it is expressed so much more pointedly than we could express it even with a great many words:

Habakkuk 1

12Art thou not from everlasting, O LORD my God, mine Holy One? we shall not die. O LORD, thou hast ordained them for judgment; and, O mighty God, thou hast established them for correction.
13Thou art of purer eyes than to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity: wherefore lookest thou upon them that deal treacherously, and holdest thy tongue when the wicked devoureth the man that is more righteous than he?
14And makest men as the fishes of the sea, as the creeping things, that have no ruler over them?

Notice this verse particularly:

Notice now:

Let's get a glimpse of the background of this passage of Scripture. Habakkuk was greatly concerned about the wickedness of his own people, so he was praying about it. God said, “Habakkuk, I am going to chasten the Israelites because of their disobedience, and I am going to use the Chaldeans to chasten them.” Habakkuk said, “Lord, that doesn't seem fair. They are not as good as we are. Evan as bad as we are, even at worst we are still better than they,” and he began to list all the things these Chaldeans did that in his mind marked them as unworthy people.

One of the things he mentioned was their interest in their business, their profession. It was the fishing business. That is what is described in verse 15. “They have a good way of catching fish with their net and with their angle and with their hook.” After they have had a good catch, what do they do? They sacrifice:

Do you know anybody who is trying to divide his allegiance between God and his business? Who has made his business his god? Who has made his profession his god? Who has made his work his god? Oh, yes, these are worshiping God, but they are trying to divide their allegiance between their business and their God. The sad thing about it is that a great many times, if a choice has to be made, the choice is made in favor of their business against God. It is not even share and share alike.

The God of Fleshly Appetite

Will you turn, please, to the book of Philippians, and notice in chapter 3 the fifth god that is mentioned in the Word of God as being a problem to the children of God. Keep in mind that it is not that the children of God forsake the worship of God. Remember that, or you will miss the point of all our discussion. It is that they want to divide their allegiance between God and these other gods.

Philippians 3

17Brethren, be followers together of me, and mark them which walk so as ye have us for an ensample.
18(For many walk, of whom I have told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ:
19Whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things.)

What is the god that is striving to share in the allegiance you owe to Jehovah Elohim? It is the god of fleshly appetite, not related only to the food at the table, but related to all the demands that this life places upon us. There are a great many of us who have some god besides Jehovah Elohim. That god is described in a rather uncouth fashion in the letter to the Philippians as one's belly.

Sometimes when we read that we think only about physical food, but don't limit it to that. It is related to all fleshly, physical appetites. Fleshly, physical appetites sometimes are so much on the throne of our heart that we cannot discharge our responsibilities to God.

Graven Images

Will you go back now to Exodus, chapter 20, and notice the second commandment, which is so closely related to the first Commandment that we feel we should consider them together:

Exodus 20

4Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.
5Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
6And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

This is the second Commandment with a word of warning and a word of exhortation included. What does this second Commandment mean?

Let us notice first of all what it does not means. It does not forbid the painting of pictures. It does not forbid the sculpturing of images. There are some people who interpret this Commandment so literally, without noticing its context, that they will have no pictures on their walls nor any kind of artistry in their homes. The Commandment does not forbid these, as is evident by facts. First, if it did, then the Bible would be contradicting itself, because when we get over to chapter 28 of the book of Exodus we are going to see God commanding Moses to make a tabernacle which He said was to be an exact replica of a tabernacle in Heaven. We are going to hear God tell Moses to have the embroiderers embroider pomegranates and bells on the hem of the garment of the High Priest (Exodus 28:33). We are going to hear God tell Moses to have the artificers in gold and brass make cherubim which would face each other, and to put them on the top of the Mercy Seat. So you see this does not rule out any reproduction of anything in the heaven or in the earth beneath, or in the sea beneath, for the purpose of illustration. If it did, the Bible would contradict itself.

Purpose of Graven Images

The other reason is that this Commandment has a definite reference to the purpose for which we make these graven images. That purpose is described in verse 5:

Exodus 20

5Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;

This Commandment forbids the making of anything which is a duplication of anything in the heaven above, in the earth beneath, or in the sea beneath for the purpose of aiding in worship. Not exclusively for the purpose of worshiping them, but even for the purpose of aiding in the worship of God. Anything that is made, be it a picture, an image, or whatever, if it is made with the idea of aiding your worship of God, is strictly forbidden in this commandment.

There are some of our friends who will tell us that they have images in their Churches, but they don't worship those images; they are only an aid to their worship. Well, that is condemned right here. There are those who will tell us that they carry a cross with the figure of Christ upon that cross on the end of a string of beads, and they will say they do not worship the image on the cross, nor do they worship the beads; these are simply aids to worship. That is what is condemned right here.

Concern About Modern Trends

Every once in a while I exercise my privilege as a preacher and mention one or two things upon which I am hipped. I am very much concerned at the trend in our churches today that may eventually violate this Commandment, or come very close to violating it. I am concerned about worship centers in Sunday School. I am concerned about where it is going to lead. If you have to have a worship center to aid you in your worship, then you are coming exceedingly close to the borderline of this Commandment here. I am concerned about the trend in our churches today to move the pulpit from the center to the side and in place of the pulpit in the center, to put an altar with a cross with candles on each side of it, even if the candles are electric bulbs. I am concerned about that, because it is a trend to ritualism which the Devil is very pleased to substitute for the operation of the Holy Spirit in the worship of God.

I love beautiful music, but I am very much concerned when anybody tells me he has to have an organ play before he can feel close to God. That is using things as a aid to worship. I am concerned when people tell me they don't feel that they have been to church unless they have been in a building with a steeple on it and stained glass windows at the side. I am concerned about that because it is bordering on what I am talking about. Don't misunderstand me. If the Lord privileged us to have a pipe organ bigger than any other in the whole country, I would say, “Praise the Lord.” I am not against pipe organs. But I would preach a sermon or two against it if somebody said we had to have it or we couldn't have a spiritual service. There is a differnece. Such things are aids to worship

Reasons for Forbidding Aids to Worship

Why does God condemn these things? The answer is found in chapter 2 of the book of Romans. Let me say generally that the reason why God condemns the use of anything as an aid to worship is that our hearts are such that our worship tends to become like the aids we use.

In chapter 1 of the book of Romans, the verses prior to verse 21 tell us that the human race had the knowledge of God, and then in verse 21 we read:

Romans 1

21Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him [notice] not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
22Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,

Notice now

Going Father Away From God

Did you notice that these images did not bring them closer to God? They drove them farther away from God. The first image they made was like man. Man is made in the image of God, so it was not too far a jump from God to the image of man. but, notice, they kept on going downhill: birds. Nothing too bad about birds. But they kept on going downhill: fourfooted beasts. They wound up making images of creeping things, Now, why? Because they did not have God in their knowledge, and in verse 25, they:

Romans 1

25…. changed the truth of God into a lie, and [notice] worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

They transferred their worship from God to themselves. Instead of changing and becoming more like God, as they would have done if they had worshiped as they should have worshiped, they changed their conception of God into images like unto themselves.

Worship God In Spirit and In Truth

Will you turn with me, please, to the Gospel of John, chapter 4. You remember that the Lord Jesus Christ was talking to a woman of Samaria at Jacob's well, and the woman began a discussion as to the proper place of worship. The Jews said Jerusalem and the Samaritans said Samaria. The Lord Jesus Christ dismissed the whole thing with the statement found in verse 21:

John 4

21Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father.
22Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.

Even though all that is true:

Will you notice the last statement of verse 24: “They must worship Him in Spirit and in truth.” They must worship Him according to the Spirit by means of the Spirit. That is the meaning of that word “in”: by means of the truth. Worship, then, must be channeled through the Holy Spirit and the Word of God, if it is to be acceptable in the sight of God. Anything else exposes us to the danger of making aids to our worship which will rob God of the glory that is rightfully His.

Effect of True Worship

The last passage of Scripture that I would like for you to notice in connection with this statement is found in Paul's second Corinthian letter, chapter 3. We suggested to you from the first chapter of the book of Romans that if you make aids to worship, eventually the god you worship will be superseded by the aids, and your conception will be not of God, but of the aids to worship themselves, and you will be bringing God down to your level instead of there being a change made in your life. Notice verse 17, please:

II Corinthians 3

17Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
18But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the LORD.

This is the effect of true worship. This is the effect of worshiping God in the Spirit and in the truth. As you worship you are changed into the same image, the image of Christ, from glory to glory, as the Holy Spirit ministers the Word of God to your heart. Aids to worship appeal not to the spirit, but to the senses. Therefore, any number of aids to worship may leave you with a very good feeling, may cause you to have your emotions stirred to their depths, so that you will leave a place of worship with a certain sense of satisfaction. But it will be only your senses that have been stirred. You will not be changed, as you should be, from glory to glory in the same image, the image of the Lord.

Reaping the Result of Idol Worship

Will you go back with me to Exodus 20, because there is one thing I would like to say to you about this first Commandment, without suggesting that we have exhausted all the possibilities of meditation on it, because we haven't. In verse 5 the Lord said:

Exodus 20

5Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, [these images,] nor serve them:……

Then He gives a very good reason for this:

Exodus 20

5…… for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God,….

We can understand that, because we talked about it earlier. But now comes a statement which disturbs a great many people. God said:

Exodus 20

5…… for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;

Some people read this and then say, “God is going to hold a man's children, his grandchildren, his great-grandchildren, and his great-great-grandchildren responsible for that man's sin.” Somebody who says that or hears that, says, “Well, if that is the kind of God the Bible talks about, I don't want to know a God like that.” Why would God hold innocent children responsible for what their fathers did? We must learn to read the Scripture in context. What is He saying here? He is saying that He will visit the iniquity of the fathers. What iniquity? What iniquity are we talking about? We are talking about the iniquity of false religion. We are talking about the iniquity of idol worship. We are talking about the iniquity of putting someone in God's place or trying to divide allegiance that belongs to God. We are talking about that which is false in relation to that which is true. What is God saying? He is saying that that man's great-grandchildren will reap the result of what he is sowing. Not the guilt, but the result.

A Godly Heritage

This may be clearer to you if you will turn to Paul's letter to Timothy, chapter 1, for an illustration by way of contrast:

II Timothy 1

5When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.
6Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands.

What is Paul saying? Paul is saying that Timothy had a godly heritage. He had a grandmother who knew God and who sowed the seeds of faith in the heart of her daughter. He had a mother who knew God and who sowed the seeds of faith in the heart of her son. What would God be saying about this? Just the opposite of what He was saying when He said, “I am going to visit this iniquity upon your children to the third and the fourth generation.” He said, “I am going to visit this blessing upon your children even beyond that.”

Will you go back to Exodus, chapter 20, verse 5:

Exodus 20

5Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God,……

Now notice:

Exodus 20

5…….. visiting this iniquity [of idolatry] of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;

Notice verse 6:

Exodus 20

6And shewing mercy unto thousands of [generations]

That is the meaning of the text:

Exodus 20

6…….. of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

It is not that God is going to punish great-grandchildren for something that great-grandfather has done. It is simply that great-grandchildren are going to reap the benefits of a godly heritage. Somebody says, “When should you begin to train a child for God? At three months, five months, a year, two years? When should you begin to train a child for God?” Someone says, “With his great-grandparents,” and that is right. That is where to begin. That is exactly what God is talking about here.

It pays to have a godly heritage. God said, “If men will put Me first, and not change My image into the image of something else, their great-grandchildren will reap the benefit thereof.”


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