The Linen Breeches
Dr. Joe Temple

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Introduction

Open your Bibles, please, to the book of Exodus, chapter 28. We begin reading with verse 1:

Exodus 28

1And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.
2And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.
3And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
4And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

We are going to stop for a moment and skip down to the last part of this chapter to the paragraph which begins with verse 40. The reason we are doing that is that in the verses between verse 5 and verse 30 is presented a detailed description of each piece of garment that was made for the high priest. Since we will be considering each piece individually and reading those passages of Scripture at that time, we will skip over them for our meditation now.

In verse 40 we read:

Exodus 28

40And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty.
41And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
42And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach:
43And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him.

You will want to keep a marker here in Exodus, chapter 28, because we will be coming back to it. Turn, please, to the book of Leviticus, chapter 8, and begin reading with verse 1:

Leviticus 8

1And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
2Take Aaron and his sons with him, and the garments, and the anointing oil, and a bullock for the sin offering, and two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread;
3And gather thou all the congregation together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
4And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and the assembly was gathered together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
5And Moses said unto the congregation, This is the thing which the LORD commanded to be done.
6And Moses brought Aaron and his sons, and washed them with water.
7And he put upon him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound it unto him therewith.
8And he put the breastplate upon him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim.
9And he put the mitre upon his head; also upon the mitre, even upon his forefront, did he put the golden plate, the holy crown; as the LORD commanded Moses.

I would like to suggest that you keep a marker here because we will be making a reference to this passage of Scripture again. Before we begin to look at the passage itself, let us keep in mind that our primary purpose in studying the tabernacle is to complete our verse by verse and chapter by chapter discussion of the book of Exodus; and since a great portion of the book is dedicated to a discussion of the tabernacle, we have been studying the tabernacle for quite some time. For purposes of quality of thought and remembrance, we have not followed a verse by verse discussion of the book of Exodus in this particular section. Rather, we have followed the construction of the tabernacle itself, the anointing of the tabernacle, and the setting aside of the tabernacle for service.

Garments of the High Priest

Now we have come back to chapter 29 of the book of Exodus. If you are familiar with this section, you know it is right in the midst of the building of the tabernacle. We are coming back to chapter 29 in order that we might study the garments of the high priest which fit the high priest for service in the tabernacle. If you listened closely as we read this Scripture, you remember that it is definitely stated, and we will be emphasizing this in a moment or two, that without these garments it would be impossible for the high priest to minister in the tabernacle.

We read chapter 28 because, as I said, in chapter 28 there is described for us the various garments as they were made. In chapter 39, detail related to each individual garment is noted which is not found in chapter 28. We asked you to turn to Leviticus, chapter 8, because in this chapter is described for us the manner in which these various garments were placed upon the high priest. We will also find the outline we will follow for our study of these priestly garments. After this lesson, we will be studying each garment as Moses placed it upon the high priest. I mention that because you might want to study ahead and notice the particular garments that we will be noticing in each successive meeting.

Not Meant for Duplication Today

Before we actually begin our discussion of the attire of the high priest, we want to think about some general things we need to keep in mind so we will be able to understand the spiritual implications of this chapter and so that we can be saved from falling into errors that others have fallen prey to. The first thing I would like to re-emphasize is that these garments were never meant to be duplicated by the so-called clergy of today. Let me say that again for you; it is important for you to remember. These garments of the high priest were never meant to be duplicated by the so-called clergy of today. We have certain religious organizations who have attired the leaders of their ecclesiastical system in garments very much like these garments. As a matter of fact, some of them are patterned particularly after these garments right here. I refer primarily to the Roman Catholic Church, and then after the Roman Catholic Church I refer to those clergical bodies that are patterned after the Roman Catholic Church because their ecclesiastical leaders would be attired in garments similar to this in graduating degrees.

Perhaps you are wondering why I am taking the time to emphasize this, and I want to give you the reason. The basic reason will be found in the book of Hebrews, chapter 9. The book of Hebrews in the New Testament, you will remember, is a commentary on many things in the Old Testament. Particularly it is a commentary on the tabernacle, the priesthood and the sacrifices; but in chapter 9, there is presented a description of the tabernacle, a reference to the priesthood, and then down in verse 8 we read:

Hebrews 9

8The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing:
9Which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience;

All that we are interested in for the present discussion is the first statement in verse 9, where we read:

Hebrews 9

9Which was a figure for the time then present,…

The tabernacle which we have been studying together, the priest's clothing which we will be studying, were meant to be only a figure of spiritual truth; they were meant only to be a type. They were never meant to be duplicated literally. If you will glance at chapter 10, verse 1, you will find this emphasized again:

Hebrews 10

1For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.

The word “law” here, of course, is used in its broader sense. It is not used only in reference to the Ten Commandments, it is used in reference to the entire Old Testament economy. You will notice what it said here: It was a shadow of things to come; it is not the very image of the thing.

Glance back at chapter 9, verse 24, and you will find these words:

Hebrews 9

24For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:

Now the “holy places made with hands” is the tabernacle, and you will notice what the Spirit of God says about it there. He says that the tabernacle and all its associated activities were only the figures of the true. We can be even more particular than this, however, if you will turn with me to the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 26, which describes the trial of the Lord Jesus Christ before the Sanhedrin. The Lord Jesus Christ is questioned in such a fashion, but when He answers truthfully, He is accused of blasphemy. Glance down at verse 65:

Matthew 26

65Then the high priest rent his clothes [that is, the high priest rent his garments] , saying, He hath spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy.

Notice in the first part of the verse. It is recorded that the high priest rent his priestly garments. If you were to take the time to read Leviticus, chapter 21, you would discover that when the high priest rent his garments, it meant that that era had come to an end, as it meant when the veil of the temple was rent from the top to the bottom.

This indicates to us then that these garments which we are studying now were to be studied for the spiritual significance and were never meant to be duplicated as ecclesiastical garb. As a matter of fact, you will find no indications in the Scripture that the clergy, so called, should dress any differently from any other person. When you find a man dressing with his collar backwards or some other kind of ecclesiastical garb, you can be sure that it is a violation of the Scriptures and was never intended for a very definite spiritual reason.

The Priesthood of Believers

Turn, please, to the book of Exodus, chapter 28, and notice how the introduction to chapter 28 verifies what I have just said–namely, that there is no difference between the clergy and the laity. Those are terms which we use. The Bible does not use them.

Exodus 28

1And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.

How many men were named in this paragraph? Five, were there not? And yet when their ministry was described did you notice that not a plural pronoun was used, but a singular pronoun. If this had been written and presented to a grammarian, it would have been corrected because you never use a single pronoun referring to plural subjects; but the singular pronoun is used here because the ministry of Aaron and his brethren were one. You will notice: “Take thou Aaron and thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister.” Yet when you read the story of their ministry, you find that they all ministered, but it was all considered one complete ministry.

If you will keep in mind as you glance at this last part of this chapter that Aaron is a type of the Lord Jesus Christ and his sons are types of individual believers, you will recognize that the priesthood of the believer is taught in the Word of God. May I suggest to you that when I speak to you of the priesthood of the believer, I am speaking of the priesthood of every individual believer. Notice verse 40:

Exodus 28

40And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty.
41And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.

The garments which the high priest wore were exactly the same as his sons wore with the exception of elaboration. They all wore the same garments [listen closely to what I am saying] on one day of the year, and that was on the Day of Atonement. On the Day of Atonement, the high priest wore clothing that on one else could wear. If you are thinking, you realize how we are associated with the Lord Jesus Christ in the priesthood of the believer in everything save our salvation. The Lord Jesus Christ died for us. We could not atone for our own sins. The Lord Jesus Christ, however, is engaged in the ministry of intercession today. We, as believer-priests, are engaged in the ministry of intercession as well.

Spiritual Requirements for Priesthood

Turn, please, to I Peter, chapter 2, and notice verse 5, to re-emphasize this that I am saying to you, that these garments of the high priest were not preserved for us in the Holy Scriptures that they might be imitated and worn today by a special class of people who set themselves above and beyond everyone else, but they were written in order that we might learn the spiritual requirements for our priesthood.

I Peter 2

5Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.

Remember that all believers are made a holy priesthood in the sight of God. You don't need to confess your sins to a priest; you don't need to ask a priest to pray for you. You don't need to think that a preacher's prayers have any more efficacy than your prayers; they do not. You do not need to think that a preacher is any closer to God than you are. Now he may be, but it does not necessarily follow that he should be. So you have the same standard, the same footing at the throne of grace, as any believer, be he a member of the clergy as we humanly use the term, or be he a layman.

Garments Illustrate Christ's Glory

Turn, please, to Exodus, chapter 28, as we notice a few other introductory remarks related to the garments of the high priest. In Exodus, chapter 28, I would like for you to notice verse 2, for it is the key to the symbolic meaning of the various garments of the high priest.

Exodus 28

2And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.

Aaron was an ordinary individual, dressed in ordinary garments with no glory or beauty about him until he was robed in the garments of the priesthood. Then he gave the appearance of glory and of beauty. We are going to see the typical representation of the garments, then, as being illustrative of those characteristics of Christ and the individual believer that speak of His glory and His beauty. A further key to the symbolism of the garments is found in the next verse, where we read:

Exodus 28

3And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

Verse 41 amplifies that though as well, for there we read:

Exodus 28

41And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.

If you are thinking, you realize that Aaron and his sons could never enter into the priestly ministry unless they were garbed in these holy garments. It is possible for all the Israelites to be Israelites, but only possible for the Levites to minister unto the Lord. In the New Testament, there is a difference. After the time of the Cross, every individual who trusts the Lord Jesus Christ as his personal Savior is a born-again believer, and every born-again believer may minister unto the Lord.

Another thing we would like to suggest to you as being significant in our introductory remarks is the number of the garments which were listed. In chapter 28 it is difficult to know the number of the garments because each individual part of the garment is presented as though it might be a garment. But if you read what is recorded in chapter 8 of the book of Leviticus, you will find that the garments of the high priest, with the exception of that which we are presently going to study which is separate, are numbered seven. Seven, as we have learned in our study of the Old Testament, is the number of perfection. It is fitting that the garments should number seven because when we are through with our study of the garments, we will be able to see what is the perfect representation of that ministry which is acceptable to the Lord.

Now, while we are on the subject, it would be wise not to pass over lightly the constant emphasis in this chapter on such adjectives as “fine” and “holy” and “pure”, because they are oft repeated; and they indicate that not just anything will do for the ministry of the priesthood, but only that which was the very best. We are inclined to think today because of our careless living that almost any kind of service is acceptable to the Lord because it is done in the name of Christ. We need to remember that only that which is perfect is acceptable in His sight.

Practical Purpose of Linen Underbreeches

We have now come to the portion of the priest's garments which I would like for us to consider in this study, and we are going to consider it as the first piece of the attire of the high priest because it is mentioned always by itself and because it is the first piece of the attire that the priest donned. Look at chapter 28 again of the book of Exodus and notice verses 42 and 43:

Exodus 28

42And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach:
43And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him.

We have read two verses which describe the first part of the garments of the high priest brought to our attention–namely, linen underbreeches. The linen underbreeches were enough. They are separated from the descriptions of all the other pieces of garments to indicate their importance. Now they had a very practical purpose. If you are familiar with the false religions that were constantly making inroads upon the nation of Israel that demanded that God insist the Israelites keep themselves separate from the people round about them, you remember that underclothing in connection with priestly worship in false religions was always forbidden. The things that characterized the worship of Jehovah as being unique was that God demanded that all of those who ministered in the service of the tabernacle wear these linen underbreeches. Those of you who are familiar with such false religions will realize that the reason they were forbidden in false religions was that these false religions were always characterized by sexual orgies and excesses, and their religions were always related to the flesh. A very practical reason, then, that these linen underbreeches were demanded is that Judaism might be different from all the false religions that were round about it. Because Judaism was characterized by its purity and its freedom from the worship of sex, no phallic symbol was related to Judaism, as was true of all these false religions.

Individual Responsibility In Accepting Salvation

We now want to look at the typical significance of these linen breeches, and the first typical significance is brought to our attention by a very significant omission in chapter 8 of the book of Leviticus. If you were to turn back there and read in detail beginning with verse 6 and ending with verse 13 describing each piece of garment as Moses placed it upon Aaron, you would find there was no reference to the underbreeches. That was not a mistake; I believe it has a significant spiritual lesson for us to learn–that the linen underbreeches were the individual responsibility of each individual priest. This was not something that Moses could place upon him; this was something that he must don of his own accord.

Those of you who have been able to be with us in this series of studies will remember that we have learned the significance of linen. We are not going to take the time to explain the Scriptures at which we have already looked again. You may do that when you have time with the studies on tape or in print; but linen is always typical of righteousness, righteousness provided by divine requirement, available to all men. Now Moses might put upon Aaron the outer garments, which speak of glory and honor, just as anyone might assist you in growing in grace and knowledge. But Aaron himself had to don these linen underbreeches, just as you are responsible for your own relationship to Jesus Christ.

Now I, as a minister of the Word of God, carry a burden on my heart that every person who sits under my ministry may know the Lord Jesus Christ as his own personal Savior. I shudder to think that anyone might sit under my ministry and die and go to Hell because he didn't know the way of salvation. But no matter how great that burden may be on my part, there is nothing I can do about it other than make the linen breeches available. The individual must don those breeches for himself. On the other hand, I, as a minister of the Word of God, in teaching the Word of God and through personal interest, may cause any number of you to grow in the grace and knowledge of God.

I could even say, without making any reference to myself, that without a minister who is able to open the Word of God, you won't grow in the grace and the knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ. We are told in Ephesians, chapter 4, that God has given to the Church evangelists, pastors and teachers–and that is one office–for the edifying of the Body of Christ–that is, for the building up of the Body of Christ for the work of the ministry. It would follow that it would be difficult for you to don these garments of glory and honor without the help of someone who is steeped in the Word of God. But the linen underbreeches had to be donned by the individual, and then after they were put on, Aaron could add the other garments. So the linen underbreeches represent that righteousness which is personally available and must be personally claimed by every individual.

Bereft of God's Glory

There is another lesson, however, related to the linen underbreeches. Notice in chapter 28 the purpose of this garment in verse 42:

Exodus 28

42And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness;…

The first time that “nakedness” is mentioned in the Word of God, it is mentioned without shame. We are told in the book of Genesis that when God created man in His own image, in verse 25 of chapter 2: “Both man and woman were naked and they were not ashamed.” Now the reason they were naked and were not ashamed was not that they were running around in the nude like in some of these nudist colonies; they were naked as far as physical clothes were concerned, but they were not nude. They were clothed with the glory of God. After sin, they were unclothed because they were bereft of the glory of God.

Then we read in chapter 3 of the book of Genesis, verses 6 and 7, that they were naked and ashamed. We read there:

Genesis 3

6And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.
7And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.

As soon as they realized they were naked, they wanted to cover their nakedness. It is an interesting thing to notice that a different word for “naked” is used in verse 25 than is used in verse 7 of chapter 3, for we are talking about an entirely different thing. They were ashamed because of their disobedience, and they stood open and naked before God with whom they had to do.

Then you will notice in this same chapter that when God came down and dealt with them, He judged them on this subject of nakedness. Notice in verse 9:

Genesis 3

9And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou?
10And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.

You see in chapter 2 that they were naked, but they were not afraid, and they were not ashamed; but now they were afraid, and they were ashamed. Their efforts at covering their nakedness were not acceptable in the sight of God. So we read in verse 21:

Genesis 3

21Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.

From that day to this, no individual can stand naked, spiritually speaking, in the sight of God without sin. From that day to this, no human effort of covering that spiritual nakedness has ever been satisfactory to God. Adam and Eve made clothes out of fig leaves and supposed their nakedness was covered, but the all-seeing eye of God pierced those fig leaves and they were just as naked as though they had nothing on in the sight of God. That is the reason He made them clothing of skins.

Here is our first indication of how our nakedness is to be covered–with skins not our own, through the sacrifice of another. These linen underbreeches were meant by God to be symbolic of that which covers that nakedness which we all have because we have been bereft of the glory of God. There is only one thing which does cover that nakedness and that is the righteousness of Christ.

Strength of the Flesh Unacceptable

Go back, please, to Exodus, chapter 28, as we notice another statement here, keeping in mind that the purpose of the clothing is to fit the individual for service in the Lord. The first attire meant for service is a righteousness not our own. You will notice in chapter 28 that not only were these linen breeches intended to cover up nakedness, but specific reference is made to the fact that they should cover the individual from the loins even unto the thighs in verse 42. Now “loins” in the Scripture are always used as being representative of the strength of the flesh, always representative of the strength of human effort.

You will remember that when the Lord Jesus Christ was wrestling with Jacob in the book of Genesis, all night long he wrestled. Usually we get it mixed up and say that Jacob wrestled with the Lord. He didn't. The Lord was wrestling with him. Do you remember that the victory only came when God touched Jacob in his loin, in his thigh? He limped for the rest of his life because of that experience. Because that experience is so sacred, the Jews even today refuse to eat that part of any animal that is offered to them for food. So the loin and the thigh have come to represent all human effort and all human strength.

Now, if you are thinking, and I trust you are and you are making suitable application, you realize that the linen underbreeches were meant not only to cover the nakedness of the individual, they were meant to cover all imitation of fleshly effort. So when you stand to minister before the Lord, there must not be any thing of the flesh for nothing of the flesh is acceptable in His sight.

Notice in chapter 8 of the book of Romans, as we notice an important New Testament truth related to the subject we are discussing. We read in Romans, chapter 8:

Romans 8

2For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.
3For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:
4That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

Notice that last phrase particularly: “who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.” The linen underbreeches covered the seat of human strength for the flesh must always be covered in the sight of God because of what we read in these verses. Notice them, please, in verse 5:

Romans 8

5For they that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit.

If the flesh is not covered, than all the activity is in the flesh.

Romans 8

6For to be carnally [change that word to ”fleshly” because it is the same word in the original text as the word ”flesh” in verse 5] minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.
7Because the carnal [fleshly] mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.
8So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.

No service that is offered in the flesh can be pleasing to the Lord. That is the reason I make bold to say, even at the risk of being criticized, that I am afraid that a great many of our church services are not acceptable in the sight of God, but it is all a ministry in the flesh many, many times. Whenever we find individuals saying that you have to have organ music to create an atmosphere of worship, you had better be on your guard, for you ought to be worshiping in the Spirit instead of the in the flesh. There's nothing wrong with organ music, and I enjoy it; when it's dedicated to the Lord, it can be used of Him; but if you say you have to have organ music before you can get in an attitude of worship, Beloved, you are worshiping in the flesh. Worship in the flesh is evidence that you are not depending upon the Spirit of God. If you say you have to worship in a building that is designed by an architect to provoke a spirit of worship, and all these things are constantly used in connection with religious worship today, then you are depending upon the flesh, not upon the Spirit. Now don't misunderstand me; there's nothing wrong with a beautiful building; there's nothing wrong with a well-equipped sanctuary; but if you say you have to have it before you can be in a spirit of worship, then you are worshiping in the flesh and not in the Spirit. I am afraid that all too many of us worship in the flesh instead of in the Spirit.

Acceptable Worship

The last thing that I want to say to you represents somewhat of a summary. Go back to Exodus, chapter 28, and notice with me the last verse:

Exodus 28

43And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him.

Now notice: If you are going to come into the presence of the Lord, if you are going to come near to the altar to minister, figuratively speaking, you must have on these linen underbreeches for you must be clothed first with the righteousness of Christ. And if you dare to worship without being clothed in the righteousness of Christ, it is as unacceptable to God as would be very evident if you were struck dead because of it. The only reason that God does not strike dead when unacceptable worship is presented to Him is that He is not acting that way in this dispensation. This is the age of grace.

Keep in mind the second thought of the summary–that it is just as serious to come into the presence of God for the purpose of worship if the sin is not confessed–and you can understand why an individual who comes in an unrighteous attitude might be deserving of death. How many of us are willing to recognize that when we come into the presence of the Lord to worship in the flesh, it is as displeasing to the Lord as if we came unclothed. And yet how guilty so many of us are, and we need to be very, very careful to examine our attitude of heart before the Lord when we come to minister before Him. If it is not in the Spirit, if it is in the flesh, it is not accepted; and not only is it not accepted, but it brings about our condemnation.


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