Principles For Civil Law Decisions
Dr. Joe Temple

Introduction

Open your Bibles, please, to the book of Deuteronomy, chapter 16. While you are opening your Bibles to that portion of the Word of God, we like to remind you that the book of Deuteronomy is a record of three speeches which Moses made plus an obituary and a blessing. We are looking at the speeches at the present time. The first speech that he made was in chapters 1-4. The second speech he made began with chapter 5 and ends with chapter 26. We said that this second speech fell naturally into three separate parts, the first part dealing with the moral law, the second part dealing with the ceremonial law, and the third part dealing with the judicial or the civil law.

Administrators of the Law

We are going to look at the third part of this second speech of Moses, that which deals with the civil or judicial law. Before we even talk about law, it would be natural for us to talk about the administrators of the law because we have learned in our day that the law is no longer than the administrator, no better than the administrator, no more thorough than the administrator. We are not at all surprised to find in this particular section of the Word of God that the Spirit of God would discuss the administrators of the law before He discussed the ceremonial law itself.

So we are going to notice that He first discusses all the judges; then He discusses the kings; then He discusses the priests; then He discusses the prophets because these four individuals (not right at this particular time we are studying about at the moment, but in the course of the history of the nation of Israel) constituted leadership of the nation. So let's notice what it says about the judges first. Notice the paragraph which begins with verse 18:

Deuteronomy 16:

18Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the Lord thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment.
19Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shalt not respect persons, neither take a gift: for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous.
20That which is altogether just shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.

It is important for you to recognize that when we use the word judges , we are not thinking primarily of a judge who sits behind a high desk in a courtroom in legal robes. We are thinking of men like Joshua, Moses, Gideon, and Deborah—leaders in Israel who ruled over the nation of Israel until such a time as Israel had a king. We are thinking as well of such persons of like character who were selected on a local basis, so that, as you read in verse 18, “Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates…;” that is, in every city, the judges would gather at the gates of the city and the various cases that needed to be decided would be decided there. Instead of a courthouse like we might have today, there would be a plaza right at the gate of the city and there the cases would be tried.

Principles of Justice

There are three principles of justice which are emphasized in this paragraph that originally were the basis for all the justice that the English-speaking world knew and know. The bad thing is that we have departed from these principles of justice, so to speak, and anarchy has been a result. Look at verse 19:

Deuteronomy 16:

19Thou shalt not wrest judgment…

That is principle number one. The word wrest could better be translated by the word deflect . “Thou shalt not deflect judgment…” That is, “You will not stop justice from taking its natural course.” Yet how often is that very thing done today? We are not making detailed comment on this because you are aware of it as am I, and we want to make a detailed comment on some of the other portions of the lesson that have a spiritual note for us that we need.

You will notice the second thing: “Thou shalt not respect persons…” Very literally, this phrase is, “Thou shalt not look on the faces of people.” We talk today, don't we, about looking up to certain people, looking down on certain people. Certain people who are in a high status society we look up to. Certain people who may be not in a high status society, we look down on them. That is the idea here. “Thou shalt not have respect of persons.” When it comes to justice and judgment, all people are alike before the judgment bar or at least that should be the way it is.

The third thing is, “Thou shalt not take a gift.” Literally, “Thou shalt not take a bribe.” A very good reason for that is that a gift or a bribe doth blind the eyes of the wise and pervert the words of the righteous. Of course, we recognize this as another principle of justice so much so that if an official is found guilty of accepting a bribe, he is not only removed from office; he is punishable by legal means as well.

It has been said that these three principles of justice were inscribed on a plaque at every gate of every city where all of these cases were decided.

A Pattern Case

After God gives in His Word these requirements for judges, He presents a typical case which these judges would have to decide. It is sort of a pattern case, so to speak, so that these principles could be applied. The heart of it is found in the paragraph which begins with verse 2 of chapter 17. Verses 21-22 of chapter 16 and the first verse of chapter 17 deal with what represents the real basis of idolatry; but here in this paragraph, which begins with chapter 17, verse 2, we have a case in point:

Deuteronomy 17:

2If there be found among you, within any of thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that hath wrought wickedness in the sight of the Lord thy God, in transgressing his covenant,
3And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;
4And it be told thee, and thou hast heard of it, and inquired diligently, and, behold, it be true, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in Israel:
5Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, which have committed that wicked thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that woman, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die.
6At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.
7The hands of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hands of all the people. So thou shalt put the evil away from among you.

Because we are just in the beginning of a discussion of this civil law related to Israel, we are going to find some very strict regulations here that are a bit out of keeping with this age of grace in which we live. We may wonder why they are given as they are, but let us keep in mind that God had a need to preserve a nation through whom the Word of God would come and through whom the Lord Jesus Christ would come. So any kind of idolatry was visited with immediate judgment that it might not spread through the entire community. The crime in question here is idolatry. Notice verses 2-3 again:

Deuteronomy 17:

2If there be found among you, within any of thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that hath wrought wickedness in the sight of the Lord thy God, in transgressing his covenant,
3And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;

Grand Jury Investigation

The matter had to be dealt with. How is it dealt with? First, in verse 4, there is a grand jury investigation. I mentioned to you that you will discover as we look at this portion of the book of Deuteronomy that our civil jurisprudence is all based on the Mosaic economy and here is a basis for a grand jury investigation. The matter is brought to your attention in verse 4:

Deuteronomy 17:

4And it be told thee, and thou hast heard of it, and inquired diligently, and, behold, it be true, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in Israel:

You make a very diligent inquiry and you make sure that the thing is absolutely true. If there is enough evidence to prove that the matter is true, then in verse 5, you begin the trial. You bring these individuals before the judges and of course the announced penalty is that they are to be stoned until they die. But you don't do it just on the basis of what the grand jury has to say. In verse 6, the trial is held and the matter is thoroughly aired so that at the mouth of two witnesses or three witnesses a sentence is passed—never at the mouth of one witness. You see, there is a fair, impartial trial delivered for the individual who has committed the crime.

Then in verse 7, there is an interesting comment, very interesting. It certainly would cause the individuals who make the accusations to be very sure of their accusations or not to make them if they were not true because you will notice in verse 7:

Deuteronomy 17:

7The hands of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hands of all the people…

It is saying simply this: The man who made the first accusation, the man who brought the whole matter to the attention of everybody involved, that man casts the first stone. That first stone is a signal for all the people in the village to throw their stones at the person involved. So you see, it makes that individual responsible for the death of the person involved.

We have somewhat the same feeling in relation to our ideas of capital punishment today, don't we? Oftentimes when a jury is being selected, the lawyers will ask if the individual believes in capital punishment. In some cases the individual does not believe in it. In other cases he does believe in it, but he is a conscientious person, so to speak, so he says, “I would not want to be guilty of sending a man to the electric chair.”

I have often said that I never get a chance to serve on jury. I have served on only one, and the reason is simply this: The prosecuting attorney feels like you might be, if you are a preacher, too merciful, so he rejects you. The defense attorney feels that you might be too stern; you might be too righteous. So he rejects you. So you very seldom get a chance to serve on a jury; but I have often said that I would want to know beyond every shadow of doubt that the person was guilty before I could assess a death penalty. I would be conscientious about it, and that is the reason God makes this particular provision here. The man who gives the first statement is the man who throws the first stone or literally pulls the switch and that would tend to make an individual careful about what he said.

The Right of Appeal

We have what we know in our jurisprudence today as the right of appeal . We can take it to the appellate court and on up to the Supreme Court if necessary in any case we have. This idea had its roots in the Word of God. Notice the paragraph which begins with verse 8:

Deuteronomy 17:

8If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, being matters of controversy within thy gates: then shalt thou arise, and get thee up into the place which the Lord thy God shall choose;
9And thou shalt come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and inquire; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgment:
10And thou shalt do according to the sentence, which they of that place which the Lord shall choose shall shew thee; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they inform thee:
11According to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the sentence which they shall shew thee, to the right hand, nor to the left.
12And the man that will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the Lord thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die: and thou shalt put away the evil from Israel.
13And all the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously.

One or two phrases in this paragraph need to be explained. You will notice the phrase, “a place where the Lord shall place His name.” That is a phrase with which we have become familiar in the book of Deuteronomy, explained to you when we first mentioned it. It is a reference to the place where God was going to build His temple, the city of Jerusalem, but if we had just the book of Deuteronomy we would not know that it is the city of Jerusalem because they are not in the Promised Land yet. He is saying, “When you get into the land and God selects the place where He is going to place His name, then that will be the place which will be the capital of the nation and everything will be settled there.” So, if you will glance back at verse 8 again, He says: “If there arises a matter that is too hard for thee in judgment in the gates—that is, on the local level—then you have the right of appeal.”

Then he lists three kinds of cases that come before local courts and can also go to the Supreme Court of the land. They are not very clear the way they are listed here in our King James Version so it might be wise to say a word about them. You will notice there in verse 8: “…between blood and blood, between plea and plea, between stroke and stroke…” The phrase, “between blood and blood,” could better be translated by the words manslaughter and murder . If there is a case that has to be decided, whether it is manslaughter or it is murder, if it cannot be decided on a local level, it can be taken to the Supreme Court of the land. Then between plea and plea. This is a reference to between word and word. That is, if one witness says it this way and another witness says it this way, and there is such evidence that no certain decision can be made, the decision has to go to a higher court.

An illustration in point is the case that during the days of famine came before Solomon concerning the little baby. Two mothers both claimed the baby. One said, “It is mine,” and the other one said, “It is mine.” There wasn't much of a way to disprove the matter, so it was taken to Solomon. As the king, he made the final decision. You will recall that he made a very wise decision. He said, “I think the fair thing to do is just to cut this baby right down the middle and give each of you ladies half.” Of course, the one lady screamed, “No, no, no. You can't do that,” and Solomon said, “You can have the baby,” because he knew that she was the real mother. He knew that the real mother would be willing to surrender the care of her baby rather than see it killed. Of course, this was real wisdom, but it is an illustration of what we mean here.

Then the next statement, “between stroke and stroke,” is a phrase that describes an individual who is seeking recompense for personal injury. We have a lot of that sort of thing in our day, don't we? We have an automobile collision and someone gets hurt, so an individual sues for personal injury, mental torture, and loss of possible labor and all of that sort of thing. If this thing can't be decided on a local level, then you bring such matters of controversy into the place which the Lord shall choose.

In verse 9, we are told where that is: “Thou shalt come unto the priests, the Levites and unto the judge that shall be in those days…” Whether it was Joshua, Gideon, Samson, or Deborah—whoever it was—the priest and the Levites and the leading judge investigated the case, and they handed down a decision. Their decision was somewhat irrevocable, somewhat similar to our Supreme Court decision, but I like to think fairer than our Supreme Court decisions of this present hour.

You will notice in verse 10 the order was given that the Supreme Court decision had to obeyed. No one was permitted to deviate from that sentence in any way whatsoever, and if an individual did deviate, according to verse 11, to the right hand or to the left, he would be acting presumptuously and he would be sentenced to die. The death penalty was evoked for many things in Israel. I would not suggest to you that it be evoked for those sort of things today, though I can give you ample Scripture which we will be getting to before we are through with this discussion, where capital punishment should be maintained even in our day for matters of life and death.

God's Foreknowledge Regarding Kings

The next paragraph is going to deal with the next officer of the law, the king. This is a very interesting paragraph. To me, it is an inspirational paragraph. You may wonder why because there isn't a great deal of inspiration in it, but it is inspirational to me because it represents the foresight of God. Keep in mind that the children of Israel were on this side of Jordan. They had not even gone into the Promised Land. Moses was still with them. All of the men whom you read about in the book of Judges had not even begun to reign. Samuel was not even on the scene and yet God laid down the procedure that should be followed when a king was selected. You remember that it was in the days of Samuel that the king was selected. The individuals in Israel said, “We want a king. We want to be like the other nations.” Samuel said, “I don't want you to have a king. I want you to stay under the rule and the reign of God.” They said, “No, we want a king,” so God said to Samuel, “If that is what they want, give them one.”

Because many people look at the Word of God from a human standpoint, this paragraph puzzles them. I don't know how many of you have read commentaries on the book of Deuteronomy. There are not a great many that are fundamental and not a great many that are really sound, but nearly every commentary on the book of Deuteronomy suggests that this paragraph was added by a later hand. What they mean by that is that somebody edited the writings of Moses and they got all mixed up in their notes and slipped this in here. This really shouldn't have been in the Bible until about the first book of Samuel. They got a little mixed up and put it in here, and we just have to put up with it unless we want to take it out of here and put it over there in I Samuel. The reason they have that problem is that they do not believe in the inspiration of the Scriptures nor do they believe in the foreknowledge of God; but I believe in the inspiration of the Scripture and I believe in the foreknowledge of God. I believe that God knows what is going to happen before it happens and He makes provision for it.

The provision He makes is not always so evident as it is in this particular paragraph, but I want to digress for a moment, if it may be called a digression, and say that in the manner in which God provided for Israel, He provides for you and for me because of His foreknowledge.

I want to ask what is going to happen to you tomorrow? You don't have any idea, do you? Someone very close to you may die tomorrow. You have no inkling of it at the moment. These moments come upon you very suddenly and you may say in so many words, “I just wasn't prepared for this.” Humanly speaking, you weren't prepared for it. Yet God in His foreknowledge did prepare you for it. He prepared for you in so many ways that you will be able to see after the initial hurt is gone and after the initial disappointment has left.

How many of you at sometime or other in your life have received a real disappointment? I dare say that nearly everybody here could raise their hand, except maybe some of you very young folk who haven't lived long enough yet to know what real hurt is. You suffered a real hurt and you said that you weren't ready for it and you just couldn't stand it; but after awhile, when visiting about it, you will say, “You know, the only way I was able to stand that was that such and such happened way back yonder and I was prepared for it.” This is the foreknowledge of God.

God in His foreknowledge knew that there would come a time when Israel would want a king. That wasn't His plan; that wasn't His purpose. He did everything He could when the actual event arose to discourage it. He even said “No,” but way back here, He made provision because He knew they were going to have their way. This is an illustration of the foreknowledge of God and that is the reason it is an inspiration to me. Long before they demanded a king, God said in verse 14:

Deuteronomy 17:

14When thou art come unto the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, I will set a king over me, like as all the nations that are about me;
15Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the Lord thy God shall choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother.
16But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as the Lord hath said unto you, Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.
17Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away: neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold.
18And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites:
19And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them:
20That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left: to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he, and his children, in the midst of Israel.

You see all the requirements for a king long before they ever thought about a king, And what were those requirements? My, as we look at them, we realize that if they had been diligently followed, much of Israel's trouble would not have been. According to verse 15, the person who was to be king was one who was an Israelite, never a foreigner, and only the one of God's own choosing. That is the reason that when time came to anoint a king over Israel, Samuel was instructed to follow the procedure he did concerning the sons of Jesse. He did not look upon the outward appearance; he had to depend upon God to look upon the heart.

After the king was selected, there was several things that he was forbidden to do. One of them was he was forbidden to multiply to himself horses and he was forbidden to go down to Egypt to get those horses. They did not use those horses for purposes of farming. They used those horses for purposes of war. The man who put his faith in chariots and horses would forget God, and so God said that the king should not multiply to himself horses or armaments. Then he said in verse 17, “Neither shall he multiply to himself wives.”

This verse should be kept in mind when you think about Solomon. Solomon had seven hundred wives and many people who don't understand the purpose of this think of Solomon as a lustful creature, a man who was a sex maniac. He had seven hundred wives. He hardly ever saw those seven hundred wives. They were married for political purposes. It was the best way of keeping people at peace to marry one of the daughters or one of the cousins. So God, knowing that and wanting these kings to depend solely upon Him and not upon their own purposes and means, said, “Neither shall he multiply wives to himself.” How good it would be if we would recognize the things which God has put in His Word to cause us to depend solely upon Him and not upon our own strength.

The sure way is in the next paragraph. We will not be multiplying horses as individuals, thus we will not be multiplying wives, but here is a practical, positive approach in the paragraph which begins with verse 18:

Deuteronomy 17:

18And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites:

I don't know whether we have even stopped to consider how very fortunate we are. I wonder how many Bibles you have in your home. I dare say that everyone here would say that they have several Bibles. The people who lived in this day of which we speak were not that fortunate. There was one copy of the Scriptures. It was kept in the city of Jerusalem under the care of the priest, and even the king didn't have his own personal copy. He had to go there, as soon as he was enthroned to the temple, and copy from the Word of God a certain portion which he kept with him all the time. God said, “I want the king to do this so that,” in verse 19:

Deuteronomy 17:

19And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them:
20That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left: to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he, and his children, in the midst of Israel.

This is good advice for all of us whether we be king or lay people. Fortunately, we don't have to just copy portions of the Scripture to carry with us. We can carry a whole Bible or a New Testament. We ought to carry the Word of God with us and read out of it every day. I wonder what you would have to say if I were to ask all of you who have read in the Word of God other than what we have done in this lesson for your own personal inspiration and blessing to stand to your feet. I wonder if I were to do that how many of you could stand to your feet? I think one of the sad things that is related to Christians today is famine of the Word of God in the sense that all of the Word of God they ever hear is when they go to church. They don't have any personal time with the Word themselves.

Did you notice in verse 19 why God wanted the king to do this? He wanted him to do it that he might learn to fear the Lord. This phrase, “fear the Lord,” as it is used in the Old Testament, never refers to a fear that causes you to run and hide in the corner some place. It is a fear that is better described by the word reverance. Why is reading in the Word of God a reason to reverence the Lord? Because this is God's message to you and when you know what God wants of you and when you know what God expects of you, then you are better able to obey.

Then you will notice in verse 19, a reason for it: “…that he might keep all the words of this law and these statutes to do them.” I don't know how many people have said to me over the course of the years at the conclusion of something I have presented from the Word of God, “I wish I had known that twenty years ago.” I don't know how many times people have said that to me. Let me confess for all of my preacher brethren and myself, part of it has been the fault of the pulpit. Part of it has been the fact that preachers have not been faithful in presenting the Word and I must acknowledge that, but dear friend, other reasons have been that you yourself have not taken time to see what the Word of God has to say. How could you possibly do what God wanted you to do if you never took the time to learn what God's Word says?

God said concerning the king, and God says concerning you that if you take the Word and keep it with you, there will be a reverence in your heart for God and there will be a desire to do the thing that God wants you to do.

Then in verse 20, He wanted the king to read the Word that his heart not be lifted up above that of his brethren. Notice verse 20:

Deuteronomy 17:

20That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left: to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he, and his children, in the midst of Israel.

He didn't want the king to say, “I am king and this doesn't apply to me.” He wanted him to be so familiar with all of the Word of God that he could not take any verse out of context and say that this applies and that doesn't. Some folk would become heady and high minded. They do the Word of God that way. They are quite willing for the Word to apply to everybody else, but not to them. But if you read the Word of God consistently, this will never be true. The truth of the Word will always fit your heart and your mind.

Then you will notice the last thing that he said: “…that he may prolong his days in his kingdom he, and his children, in the midst of Israel.” From the kingly standpoint, it means simply this: If the king of Israel did not do as he was supposed to do, then God would remove him from his office as king. Not only would he be removed from his office of king, but he would remove as well his descendants from office. That is what has happened to the nation of Israel now. That is the reason there is no king reigning over Israel today. The kings disobeyed the Word of God.

I want to add this other word, and that is what was said concerning the kings can be said concerning the individual Christian of this present day. If we are not obedient to God's Word, then God has a way of removing us. Wait just a minute. I didn't say that the individual concerned would lose his salvation. Thank God, his salvation is full, it is free, it is permanent; but God does have a way of removing His children from places of responsibility when they do not obey His Word. He has a way of closing doors to opportunity when they do not obey His Word. He has a way of even removing them from this earth. Yes, literally taking their lives physically, when they do not walk in the Word that is so plainly presented.

That is the reason the Apostle Paul said in I Corinthians, chapter 9, that he consistently and constantly kept his body under. He said, “I don't do any shadowboxing. I mean business. I don't run as though I am not interested in winning the race. I mean business. I keep my body under. I keep it under control, lest after having preached to others I myself should become a castaway.” The literal translation of the word castaway is “disapproved.” Paul didn't mean that there was a possibility of his losing his salvation. He just meant, “I don't want to be laid aside. I have preached to so many people and God has used me in such a great way and I want to continue on to the very end. I don't want to be laid aside in any fashion.”

Be Familiar With the Word

Why did he say that? Because God has a way of laying folk aside if obedience to the Word is not forthcoming. So I am going to say in closing, become familiar with the Word. Make it a vital part of your life. Don't let a day go by without spending some time in the Word. When I make that statement, the question is often asked, “What part of the Word? I don't enjoy reading all of it.” That is quite true. There are some things you don't understand and there are some things when you jump right in the middle of the chapter, you don't know what comes before and what comes after. I would suggest to you, either you follow the policy of reading through some book beginning at the very beginning, such as the Gospel of John, for example, and before you read that morning or evening, whatever the time is, don't worry about reading a whole lot. Don't see how fast you can finish the book, but when you read in the Word, bow your head before you begin to read and pray this prayer David prayed: “Open thou mine eyes that I may behold wondrous things out of Thy law.”

Many of you will remember Dr. David L. Cooper, who used to come here every year for a Bible conference. I have said before and I will say again that in my estimation, he was one of the greatest Bible scholars I think this world has ever known. He was not easy to listen to as those of you know who heard him. He didn't get himself across very well, but if you listened, you were always richly repaid. I used to think there wasn't anything new he could say. He knew the Word so well and he knew Hebrew so well that his speech was almost guttural like the Hebrew sound. He told me one day that he never read the Word without seeing something that he had never seen before. I said, “Well, I am amazed by that. I can understand the blessing. I can understand your saying that you never read the Word without getting a blessing, but I can't understand your saying that you never read the Word without seeing something that you have never seen before. You have seen it all, haven't you?” He said, “I always say, ‘Open thou mine eyes that I may behold wondrous things out of Thy Law,' and God never disappoints me.”

Conclusion

I would like to suggest to you that you follow the plan that God laid down for the king of Israel. Keep the Word of God with you. Read it every day and see what a difference it will make in your life.


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